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Education Research Guide: Citation Style

Citations Print

There are many styles used to cite sources used to support your research.  Most academic institutions have standardized requirements for their students.  Some of the most widely used styles of citation are:

A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian. Ref. LB2369.T8 2007

APA Manual (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association Publication). Ref. BF76.7.P83 2010

Citing Cyberspace: A Quick-Reference Guide to Citing Electronic Sources in MLA and APA Styles by James D. Lester Ref. LB2369.L47 2000

The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism (electronic resource) by Colin Neville.  PN171.F56 N48 2007eb

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers  Ref. LB2369.G53  2009, 2016

Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide by James D. Lester.  Ref. LB2369.L4 1999

 

 

 

APA Style Manual

 Citation Style Guides

This is a basic guide provided for your citation.  For more detailed style visit the links at the end of the APA and MLA basic citation style.

American Psychological Association (APA), 6th Edition

The APA citation style is used to cite references/sources in the Social Sciences (Psychology, Social Science, Education, Business, etc.).

The print manual is available at the Reference desk.  The call number is Ref. BF 76.7.P83 2010.

How to cite Books

Format:

Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s).  (Year of Publication).  Title of book.  (Use semi-colon (:) with subtitle of a book).  Publisher city, State: Publisher.

Examples:

One author

Fleming, J. (2012). Enhancing minority student retention and academic performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Langford, R.W. (2016). Mosby PDQ for RN: Practical, detailed, quick.  St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

 Two or Three authors

Fisher, A., & Exley, K.

Fisher, A., Exley, K., & Ciobanu, D. (2014). Using technology to support learning and teaching.  New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis.

Four or More authors

If the book has four or more authors, include all names or only the name of the first author followed by “et al” as shown below:

Husted, G. L., Husted, J. H., Scotto, C.J., & Wolf, K.M.  (2015). Bioethical decision making in nursing.  New York, NY: Springer.

Husted, G.L., et al. (2015).  Bioethical decision making in nursing. New York, NY: Springer.

 Group authors

Example:

American Psychological Association.  (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

No author

If there is no author begin with the date.

(Year of publication).  Title. Place of publication.  Publisher.

Example:

(1999). American Jewish desk reference: The ultimate one-volume reference to the Jewish experience in America.  New York, NY: Random House.

No date

Format:

Author’s name. Year of publication. Title. (N.d.). Place of publication. Publisher.

Example:

Moholy-Nagy, L., (N.d.) Photogram.  New York, NY: Museum of Mod. Art.

Book with Editors

Example:

Tagliaferri, M., Cohen, I., & Tripathy, D. (Eds.) (2003). Breast cancer: Beyond convention: The world’s foremost authorities on complementary and alternative medicine offer advice on healing.  New York, NY: Atria Books.

Edition other than the first

Example:

Esposito, J.L. (2011).  What everyone needs to know about Islam (2nd. Ed.).  New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Revised edition

Example:

For a revised edition, use the abbreviation “Rev. ed.” in parenthesis.

Hirsch, A.S. (2004).  How to be happy at work: A practical guide to career satisfaction. (Rev. ed.).  Indianapolis, IN:JIST Works.

Multi-volume Set

Example:

Mizrahi, T., & Davis, L.E. (Eds.).  (2008).  Encyclopedia of Social Work.  (Vols. 1-4). Washington, DC: NASW Press.

Encyclopedia

Example:

Mizrahi, T., & Davis, L.E. (Eds.).   (2008).  Advocacy.  Encyclopedia of Social Work.  (Vol. 1, pp.59-65). Washington, DC: NASW Press.

Government Publication

Example:

HUD Statistical Yearbook.  (1973). Program utilization by minority group category (Federal Insurance Administration, p. 56).  Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Dissertation   

Format:

Last name first, initial(s), (Year).  Title of dissertation (Doctoral dissertation).  Retrieved from Name of database.  (Accession or Order Number).

Example:

Panda, D.D.  (1991). An assessment of the impact of cultural diversity on the organizational communication patterns and processes of a United States firm.  (Doctoral dissertation).  Retrieved from WorldCat Dissertations and Theses (FirstSearch).  (29353470).

How to cite a Chapter in a Book

Format:

Last name, initial(s). (Year of publication). Section title.  In (initial(s), Last name).  Title of Book (5th Edition, Page(s). City, State: Publisher.

Example:

Poe, E. A.  (1998). The Sleeper. In N. Baym (Ed.), The Norton Anthology of American Literature (5th ed., pp.1487-1489).  New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.   

How to cite Two or More Books from Same Author

Use the author’s last name, followed by the year (the earliest year comes first and so forth).

Example:

Hannell, G. (2007). The teacher’s guide to intervention and inclusive education: 1000+ strategies to help all students succeed!  Minnetonka, MN: Peytral Publications.

Hannell, G. (2004). Promoting positive thinking: building children’s self-esteem, confidence and optimism.  London: David Fulton.

How to cite E-Books

E-book is an online book version that is readable on computers.  The library’s e-books are available online through the library’s databases.

Format:

Author, (Year of Publication) Title of book.  Retrieved from the URL address.

Example:

EBSCOHost e-books database.

Millis, B.J.  (2010). Cooperative learning in higher education: Across the disciplines, across the academy.  Retrieved from URL: http://ezproxy.desu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?authtype=ip,uid&profile=ehost&defaultdb=nlebk

 Ebrary e-books database.

Martinek, T., & Hellison, D., (2009).  Youth leadership in sport and physical education.  Retrieved from URL:  http://ezproxy.desu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/ebrary?accountid=10458

ebook Academic North America.

Scullion, P. A., & Guest, D.A.  (2007).  Study skills for nursing and midwifery students.  Retrieved from URL:  http://ezproxy.desu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?authtype=ip,uid&profile=ehost&defaultdb=e000xna

How to Cite Journal Articles

The same guidelines are used to cite print and online articles.  All the necessary information available on the journal article should be included in the citation.

Print Journal Articles

Format:

Last name first, followed by initials(s).  (Year of Publication).  Title of Article.  Name of Journal, Volume(Issue), pp. Pages.

Examples:

Simpson, R.L. (2004).  Finding effective intervention and personnel preparation practices for students with autism spectrum disorders.  Exceptional Children, 70(2), 135-144.

Sipe, L.  (2001).  Using picturebooks to teach art history.  Studies in Art Education, 42(3), 197-213.

Magazine Article

Format: 

Last name first, initial(s). (Year, Month date Published).  Title of Article. Name of Magazine, Page(s).

Example:

Vnuk, R.  (2016, May). Weeding without worry.  American Libraries, 50-53.

Scherer, M.  (2015, May 11).  A surprise turn for the high court’s debate on same-sex marriage.  Time, 20.

Database Journal Articles

Format:

Last name first, followed by initial(s).  (Year of Publication).  Title of Article.  Name of Journal, Volume(Issue), pp. Page(s).  Retrieved from URL

 Examples:

Education Research Complete

Sheard, M.K. & Sharpies, J.  (2016).  School leaders’ engagement with the concept of evidence-based practice as a management tool for school improvement.  Administration and Leadership, 44(4), 668-687.   URL:  http://ezproxy.desu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?authtype=ip,uid&profile=ehost&defaultdb=ehh

Delaney, M.M., Friedman, M., I., Dolansky, M.A., & Fitzpatrick, J.J.  (2015).  Impact of a sepsis educational program on nurse competence.  Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 46(4), 179-186.  URL:

http://ezproxy.desu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?authtype=ip,uid&profile=ehost&defaultdb=ehh

Doolittle, S.A. Weidong L. Rukvina, P.B., Manson, M. & Beale, a.  (2016).  Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 35(2), p127-137.  URL:  http://ezproxy.desu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?authtype=ip,uid&profile=ehost&defaultdb=ehh

Newspaper Article

Format:

Author’s name.  (Year, Month day).  Title of Article.  Name of Newspaper, p. or multiple pages pp. D1, D2-D4 for Print newspaper, and online newspaper use URL:

Example:

LexisNexis Academic

Weissert, W. & Weber, P.L.  (2016, July 22).  Rulings may make over voter ID laws presidential race nonfactors.  St. Louis Post-Dispatch.  Retrieved from URL:   http://ezproxy.desu.edu:2048/login?url=http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe

Genzlinger, N.  (2016, July 11).  Halls of power, packed with history.  New York Times.  Retrieved from URL:  http://ezproxy.desu.edu:2048/login?url=http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe

For additional citation from other sources see the link below to Easybib APA citation style:

http://www.easybib.com/guides/citation-guides/apa-format/

MLA Style Manual

MLA (Modern Language Association) 7th Edition 

The MLA Handbook is used to cite references/sources in the humanities (English composition, Literature, History, Religion, etc.).

How to cite Books

Format:

Name:  Last, First, Middle initial.  Title.   Place of Publication: Publisher, Year Published. Medium.

Examples:

One author

Fleming, Jacqueline.  Enhancing Minority Student Retention and Academic Performance.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2012.  Print.

Hannell, Glynis.  Identifying Special Needs: Checklists for Profiling Individual Differences.  New York, NY: Routledge, 2014.  Print.

Two or Three authors

Fisher, Andy, and Kate Exley.

Fisher, Andy, Kate Exley, and Dragos Ciobanu.  Using Technology to Support Learning and Teaching. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2014.  Print.

Four or More authors

If the book has four or more authors, include all names or only the name of the first author followed by “et al” as show below:

Husted, Gladys L., James H. Husted, Carrie J. Scotto, and Kimberly M. Wolf. 

Husted, Gladys L., et al.  Bioethical Decision Making in Nursing.  New York: Springer Publishing Company, 2015.  Print.

Group author

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.  New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009.

No author

If there is no author begin with the title.

Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.  Medium.

Example:  American Jewish Desk Reference: the Ultimate One-volume Reference to the Jewish Experience in America. New York: Random House, 1999.  Print.

Book with Editors

Example:

Tagliaferri, Mary, Isaac Cohen, and Debu Tripathy, eds.  Breast Cancer: Beyond Convention: the World’s Foremost Authorities on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Offer Advice on Healing.  New York: Atria Books, 2003. Print.

Edition other than the first

Example:

Esposito, John L.    What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam. 2nd. ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.

Revised edition

Example:

Shotwell, James T.  The History of History.  Rev. ed.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1939. Print.

Multi-volume set

Example:

Lomotey, Kofi, ed.  Encyclopedia of African American Education.  2vols.  California: Sage Publications, Inc., 2010.  Print.

How to cite an Anthology

Format

If citing an essay, a short story, a poem, or another work that appears within an anthology or some other book collection you need to follow this format.  Author, title, and (if relevant) translator of the part of the book being cited.   Begin the entry with the name of the author, followed by the title of the work in quotation marks.  The name of the Anthology.  Editor Edition.  City: publisher. Year, page(s).  Print.

Example:

Poe, Edgar Allan.  “The Sleeper.” The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Nina Baym, et al. 5th. ed. New York: Norton & Company, 1998, 1487. Print.

 No date

Format:

Author’s name.  Title of book. N.d. Type of work. City, Source. Web. Date.

Examples:

Heckman, Albert.   Windblown Trees. N.d.  Lithograph on paper. Private Collection.

Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo.  Photogram. N.d.  Museum of Mod. Art, New York.

How to cite Encyclopedia articles or Dictionary entry

Format:

Last Name, First Name (if provided).  “Title of Entry.”

Title of Encyclopedia or Dictionary.  Edition (if provided).  Year.  Medium

Example

Mizrahi, Terry, and Larry E. Davis Eds.  “Advocacy.”   Encyclopedia of Social Work 20th Edition.  2008.  Print.

“Decanter.”  Webster’s II New College Dictionary.  2001.  Print

Government Publication

Format:

Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified.  If not, start with the name of the national government, followed by the agency (including any subdivisions or agencies) that serves as the organizational author.  For congressional documents, be sure to include the number of the Congress and the session when the hearing was held or resolution passed.  US government documents are typically published by the Government Printing Office, MLA use the abbreviation GPO.

Example:

United States.  Congressional Directory.  110th Cong., Washington: GPO, 2007-2008.  Print

How to cite Two or More Books from Same Author

With two or more titles from the same author, the subsequent entries are listed as ---. (three hyphens and a period) instead of repeating the name.

Example:

Piazza, Tom.  City of Refuge: a Novel.  New York: Harper.  2008. Print

---.  Why New Orleans Matters.  New York, NY: Regan Books. 1st Ed. 2005. Print.   

How to cite E-Books

If the edition, volume or series is not available, leave it out.

Format:

Name:  Last, First, Middle initial. Title of Book.  Edition.   City of Publication: Publisher. Year of Publication.  Series.   Name of Database. Medium. Date Month Year Accessed.

Title of Book: Subtitle of Book

Examples:

Oermann, Marilyn H., and Kathleen B. Gaberson.   Evaluation and Testing in Nursing Education.  4th ed.  New York: Springer Publishing Company. 2014.  EBSCOhost eBook.  Web. 25 May 2016.

Fisher, Jill A.  Gender and the Science of Difference: Cultural Politics of Contemporary Science and Medicine.  New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.  2011.   Studies in Modern Science, Technology, and the Environment.  EBSCOhost eBook . Web.  25 May 2016.

Horowitz, David.  Reforming Our Universities: The Campaign for an Academic Bill of Rights.  New York, NY: Regnery Publishing.  2010.  ebrary. Web.  25 May 2016.

Brown, Christopher, M. II, and Kassie Freeman.  Black Colleges: New Perspectives on Policy and Practice.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.  2004.  ebrary. Web.  25 May 2016.  

How to Cite Journal Articles

Format: 

Author’s name, Title of the article (in quotation marks), Name of the periodical (italicized), Series number or name (if relevant), Volume number (for a scholarly journal), Issue number (if available, Date of publication (for a scholarly journal, the year, for other periodicals, the day, month, and year, as available), inclusive page numbers, Medium of publication consulted (Print), and (Web).

Short form:

Author’s name.  “Title of the article.” Publication information.

Note:  Print magazines are cited much the same way as online publications except that (Print) is the medium used instead of (Web), and you do not include an access date.

Example:

Krause, Jennifer M., and Eddie A. Benavidez. “Potential Influences of Exergaming on Self-efficacy for Physical Activity and Sport.”  Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 85.4 (2014) April: 15-20. Print.

Magazine Article

Online

Sills, Ben.  “Banks Curb Carbon Trading.”  Business Week 19 Dec. 2011:1. ProQuest Research Library.  Web.  1 June 2016.

Print

Altman, Alex. “Crime and Politics.” Time 16 May 2015: 40-41.  Print.

Lewis-McCoy, R. L’Heureux.  “Our Kids; Whose History?”  Ebony February 4 (2016): 102-104.  Print.

Databases

Scholarly Article in an Online Database

Examples:

Gale, Trevor, and Stephen Parker.  “Navigating Change: A Typology of Student Transition in Higher Education.”  Studies in Higher Education 39.5(2014): 734-753.  Education Research Complete.  Web.  14 June 2016.

Habich, Michele, and MariJo Letizia.  “Pediatric Pain Assessment in the Emergency Department: A Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Protocol.”  Pediatric Nursing 41.4(2015): 198-202.  CINAL Plus.  Web.  14 June 2016.

For additional citation from other sources see the link below to Easybib MLA citation style:

http://www.easybib.com/guides/citation-guides/mla-format/

http://liu.cwp.libguides.com/sb.php?subject_id=13235

 

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